Jesus Institutes the Lord’s Supper
And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.” Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.”
The first church, as all churches should be, was a CONTINUING CHURCH. So far, we have considered their "continuing steadfastly in THE APOSTLES' DOCTRINE and FELLOWSHIP." We will now study another characteristic of that first church.
A. WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS ACT?
1) Redeemed Israel and the Passover
The children of Israel were delivered out of Egyptian slavery by God. In delivering them He had to judge the wickedness of Egypt, by decreeing the death of "all the firstborn in the land of Egypt" (Ex. 12:12). To be delivered from this judgement, each Israelite family was ordered to "[take] a lamb...[and] kill it...[and] take of the blood, and put it on the two door posts and on the lintel of the houses...[and] eat the flesh on that night, roasted with fire, and unleavened bread" (Ex. 12:3,6-8). This meal, celebrating their redemption, was called "THE LORD'S PASSOVER" (Ex. 12:11). It was so called, because as Moses said, "the Lord will pass through to smite the Egyptians; and WHEN HE SEES THE BLOOD upon the lintel, and on the two side posts, THE LORD WILL PASS OVER the door, and WILL NOT SUFFER THE DESTROYER to come into your houses to strike you" (Ex.12:23).
2) Israel was a type
1 Cor. 10:11 - "Now all these things happened to them for EXAMPLES (as types): and THEY WERE WRITTEN FOR OUR ADMONITION."
1 Cor. 5:7 - "...CHRIST OUR PASSOVER was sacrificed for us."
JBP - "We Christians have had A PASSOVER LAMB SACRIFICED FOR US - none other than Christ Himself!"
Each year Israelites remembered their miraculous deliverance from Egypt by celebrating the Passover. God had said "...this day shall be unto you for a MEMORIAL; and you shall keep it a FEAST TO THE LORD throughout your generations" (Ex. 12:14). Just as Israel under the Old Covenant celebrated their redemption with an annual memorial feast, so the redeemed under the New Covenant celebrate their redemption through "Christ our Passover" in an often—repeated meal of remembrance. Variously called: Communion; the Lord's Supper ...
3) The Message of the Miracle Sign
The Lord Jesus knew for what purpose He had come into the world. He had come to "save that which was lost" by giving "His life a ransom for many" (Matt. 18:11; 20:28). In His deeds (behaviours and actions) and teaching He was declaring Himself to be Israel's Messiah and the world's Saviour. His miracles were "signs," which when understood correctly pointed to some aspect of His redeeming Person. One of these signs was THE FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND (Matt. 14:13—21; Mark 6:32-44; Luke 9:10·17); John 6:1-14." It is significant that, at the beginning of his account of this miracle, John should tell us that "THE PASSOVER, a feast of the Jews was near" (John 6:4). It is also most meaningful, that the day following the miracle, Jesus spoke at some length about Himself being "THE BREAD OF LIFE" (John 6:35). Looking now at the miracle itself, let us notice especially what is said about the loaves.
Matt. 14:19-20 - "Then He commanded the multitudes to sit down on the grass. And He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, He blessed and broke and gave the loaves to the disciples; and the disciples gave to the multitudes. So they all ate and were filled, and they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments that remained." Note the four words used to describe our Lord handling the bread. He "TOOK... BLESSED... BROKE... GAVE." What Jesus did with the bread to enable the feeding of the multitude, God did with the "Bread of Life" to afford spiritual sustenance to "the world" (John 6:33). God "TOOK" Jesus in the incarnation; "BLESSED" Him at His baptism in the Jordan when the Holy Spirit descended upon Him; "BROKE" Him at Calvary, and "GAVE" Him at His ascension and the giving of the Holy Spirit. We will meet these four words again as we pursue our study.
4) The Memorial Meal Officially Instituted
John the Baptist had introduced Jesus as "the LAMB OF GOD who TAKES AWAY THE SIN OF THE WORLD" (John 1:29). There could be no mistaking this reference. John said at this time when "the Jews' passover WAS AT HAND" (John 2:13). Jesus was the One Whom the passover lamb typified. It is not surprising then, that His "hour" for giving His life in saving death should "come" at passover time. He was introduced at passover and died at passover.
Jesus wanted to share His last passover with His disciples. So they "made ready the passover," and "when the evening had come, He sat down with the twelve" (Matt. 26:19-20). It was fitting that the last valid passover should be the occasion for instituting the real MEAL OF REMEMBRANCE. There is a definite link between the one and the other. The type must be fulfilled in the reality, and the shadow must be replaced by the Substance.
Matt. 26:26-28 - "And as they were eating, Jesus TOOK bread, and BLESSED it, and BROKE it, and GAVE it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; for this is my blood of the new testament (covenant), which is shed for many for the remission of sins." ("Do this in remembrance of me" — Luke 22:l9).
Notice the use of the "four words" again. It is the manner in which our Lord handled the bread that accounts for this Memorial Meal being called "BREAKING OF BREAD."
5) The Memorial Meal Celebrated
i. The Emmaus travellers (Luke 24:13-35)
After His resurrection, our Lord appeared many times to His disciples. One of these appearances was to two disciples as they travelled to Emmaus. "Jesus Himself drew near, and went with them. But their eyes were restrained, so that they did not know Him ('something prevented them from recognizing Him' - JBP). "The disciples were obviously sad and the Lord asked them why. They told Him about "Jesus of Nazareth" and how they had hoped He was the Messiah. Then Jesus began to expound "unto them in all the scriptures THE THINGS CONCERNING HIMSELF." As they approached the village Jesus intimated that He would go on, but they urged Him to stay with them as it was getting late. He agreed, and "went in to stay with them." Then it happened. Notice the "four words."
Luke 24:30,31,35 - "And it came to pass, as He sat at meat with them, He TOOK bread, and BLESSED it, and BROKE, and GAVE to them. And THEIR EYES WERE OPENED, and THEY KNEW HIM; and He vanished out of their sight...And they told what things were done in the way, and how HE WAS KNOWN TO THEM IN THE BREAKING OF BREAD."
Some say that this was just an ordinary meal, and that they recognized Him by the nail prints in His hands. That could be. Others believe it was the first celebration of the Lord's Supper, presided over by the Lord Himself. Whatever our view, it must be said, that it is in the revelation of our Lord's giving of Himself as symbolized in the Communion that our eyes are open to know Him for who He really is.
ii. The First Church
Acts 2:45-46 - "And they continued steadfastly...IN BREAKING OF BREAD...And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and BREAKING BREAD from house to house, did eat their meal with gladness and simplicity of heart."
In the beginning, before the churches developed their structured life, they seem to have "broken bread" at every regular meal. While they were "daily in the temple" for worship, instruction, and ministry, it was in their homes that they entered into the intimate sharing of "the Lord's Supper."
iii Paul and the Disciples at Troas
Acts 20:7— "And on the FIRST DAY OF THE WEEK, when the disciples came together TO BREAK BREAD, Paul preached unto them..."
"This is an important evidence of the keeping of the Lord's Day by the Church as a day for their Church assemblies." It was the day of Christ's resurrection (Luke 24:1), and the day when He "brake" bread with the Emmaus travellers (Luke 24:31). Paul indicates the first day as that on which the believers gathered and brought their "collection" (1 Cor. 16:1-2). This is also an important example of weekly communion as the practice of the first Christians. The things that Paul taught, he taught "everywhere in every church" (1 Cor. 4:17), so we might conclude that the practice in Troas was the practice in all the churches.
STUDY QUESTIONS FOR LESSON #7